X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy of LiM0.05Mn1.95O4 (M=Ni, Fe and Ti)
- 化学化工－已发表论文 
LiMn2O4 and LiM0.05Mn1.95O4 (M=Ni, Fe and Ti) were synthesized by using solid-state reactions and their surface stoichiometries were confirmed by XPS data. The crystal and electronic structures were investigated by using X-ray diffraction (XRD), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). XRD data suggested that LiM0.05Mn1.95O4 possesses nearly no any variations in lattice parameters compared with LiMn2O4 for slight substitution of Ni, Fe and Ti; the substituted Ni, Fe and Ti ions were located on the 16d octahedral sites in the spinel crystal lattice. The XPS results suggested that Fe and Ti ions were at + 3 and + 4 oxidation states, respectively; while Ni ions are mixed with + 2 and + 3 oxidation states. The normal oxidation state of Mn ions in the above four materials is almost the same and calculated as + 3.55 according to the splitting energies of Mn3s states. (c) 2006 Published by Elsevier B.V.