Lessons learned from 'decentralized' ICM: an analysis of Canada's Atlantic Coastal Action Program and China's Xiamen ICM Program
- 海洋环境－已发表论文 
Integrated coastal management (ICM) is a management process used by stakeholders in decision making to determine how coastal areas will be used and what activities can take place in them. While many ICM Programs are national government initiatives, some ICM Programs are 'decentralized', managed by community groups or local governments. This paper describes the Atlantic Coastal Action Program (ACAP), an ICM Program in Atlantic Canada, and the Xiamen ICM Program, in Xiamen, China, and discusses their major differences. The most important difference between the two ICM Programs is that ACAP is a community-based program that uses a multi-stakeholder approach and consensus decision making, while the Xiamen ICM Program is managed by a coordinating office within a local government. After comparing the two programs, some general lessons learned about decentralized ICM from these case studies are noted. It is concluded that the appropriate use of either model for ICM depends on the cultural, economic and political environment of the program. However, stakeholder involvement, scientific consultation and the use of a detailed management plan are important components of any decentralized ICM program. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.