Recent Progress in Non-Precious Metal Oxygen Reduction Reaction Catalysts with an Encapsulation Structure
- 2016年第22卷 
燃料电池中广泛使用的铂基催化剂价格昂贵、储量低、容易失活，因此亟待开发廉价、高效非铂催化剂. 过渡金属(Fe、Co、Ni等)/杂原子共掺杂催化剂、杂原子掺杂（N、P、S、F等）碳材料以及碳材料包覆过渡金属复合物是目前发现的几类性能优异的非贵金属氧还原催化剂. 其中碳材料包覆过渡金属催化剂作为一类新型的高性能催化剂，对其研究还有待深入. 本文主要阐述了国内外在包覆型非贵金属氧还原催化剂方面的研究进展，从合成，性能，机理等方面对该类催化剂进行了总结，力求助益于该类催化剂的发展.Platinum-based materials, the state-of-the-art catalysts for fuel cells, suffer from prohibitive costs, limited resources and insufficient durability. Accordingly, tremendous efforts were made in searching for efficient, durable and inexpensive alternatives to precious-metal electrocatalysts for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). Transition-metals (Fe, Co)/nitrogen co-doped hybrids, heteroatom (N, P, S, F, et al) doped carbons and composites with transition-metals encapsulated in graphitic layers are reported as the most efficient non-precious metal ORR catalysts. Among the various non-precious metal ORR catalysts, transition-metals encased in graphitic layer catalysts are a novel type of catalysts for ORR with high activity and durability, and thus, the in-depth researches are highly desirable. Here, we present the recent research progress in transition-metals encased catalysts from the aspects of synthesis, activity and catalytic mechanism, in an effort to promote the developments of these catalysts.