A Preliminary Discussion over the Legislation on Anti-monopoly in the Area
【中文摘要】《联合国海洋法公约》在有关“区域”制度的规定中有多处提及了“垄断”一词，并规定了关于多金属结核的反垄断标准，但并未对“垄断”给出明确的定义。在《“区域”内多金属硫化物探矿和勘探规章》和《“区域”内富钴铁锰结壳探矿和勘探规章》的制定过程中，国际海底管理局认为《联合国海洋法公约》附件三所规定的关于多金属结核的反垄断标准，不能有效适用于多金属硫化物和富钴铁锰结壳，因此致力于在2个新规章中载明新的反垄断条款。尽管如此，国际海底管理局最终通过的2个规章中却未能规定明确的反垄断标准，但国际海底管理局通过相关决定，要求法律和技术委员会及时拟订可能用来防止对“区域”内多金属硫化物和富钴铁锰结壳勘探开发实行垄断的适当标准，并向国际海底管理局理事会报告其审议情况。本文拟通过回顾《联合国海洋法公约》以及国际海底管理局相关规章制定过程中有关反垄断问题的讨论，阐明“区域”反垄断问题的含义， 并结合“区域”的特殊法律地位，提出对“区域”反垄断问题的几点认识。 【Abstract】The term “monopoly” has never been given a clear definition in the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (hereinafter “the Convention”)， though it is mentioned in many provisions on the system of the “Area” under the Convention, which also contains anti-monopoly provisions in respect of polymetallic nodules. During the formulation of the Regulations on Prospecting and Exploration for Polymetallic Sulphides in the Area and the Regulations on Prospecting and Exploration for Cobalt-rich Ferromanganese Crusts in the Area, the International Seabed Authority (hereinafter “the Authority”）held that the provisions under Annex III of the Convention related to the anti-monopoly criteria with regards to polymetallic nodules could not be effectively applied to polymetallic sulphides and cobalt-rich ferromanganese crusts, hence the Authority determined to set out new anti-monopoly provisions in the two new Regulations. Even so, the two Regulations as finally adopted by the Authority still failed to clearly stipulate anti-monopoly criteria. However, the Authority has adopted some relevant resolutions, requiring its Legal and Technical Commission (LTC) to, in due course, elaborate the appropriate criteria that might be used to prevent monopolization with respect to the exploration and exploitation of polymetallic sulphides and cobalt- rich ferromanganese crusts in the Area and report its consideration to the Council of the Authority. This article seeks to further define the issue of anti-monopoly in the Area based on a review of the relevant discussions during the formulation of the Convention and the associated Regulations by the Authority. Meanwhile, it shares predictions and suggestions regarding the issue after taking into special consideration the unique legal status of the Area.