Conserving Northwestern Pacific Straddling Fish Stocks through Bottom-Up Transboundary Collaboration
【中文摘要】自《联合国海洋法公约》于1994年生效以来，沿岸国扩张渔业管辖权至200海里已成为世界海洋渔业管理体制之主流，并使得海洋渔业的开发与养护转而聚焦在残余的公海渔业资源上，其中尤以高度洄游鱼种和跨界鱼种为众所关切。针对高度洄游鱼种，目前全球已成立了多个区域性渔业管理组织负责保育及管理，近10年已通过数十项管理措施，使一些曾被过渔的资源鱼群逐渐恢复。 但针对众多跨界鱼种资源的管理，则还在各国的利益争执下进展缓慢，其中，分布在中国大陆、日本、韩国、中国台湾海域间的几种西北太平洋跨界鱼种，几乎还未开始有利用国之间跨界合作管理的协商。本文介绍了几种西北太平洋跨界鱼种的 资源现况、管理方式，以及为何急需进行跨界合作管理以减缓其资源衰退状况。区域性渔业管理组织的管理建构系从上而下的模式，先通过政治协商签署国际文件或公约，再据此成立渔业资源管理的实体或委员会及所属的次级委员会，最后经由科学单位的研究辩证以及管理层级的协商，拟订、通过各项资源保育管理措施来达到保育目标。这种模式需要冗长的公约讨论和费时的管理委员会建构，对于急切需要管理之鱼种资源可能缓不济急，而且也不适用于尚未有成立国际组织之共识的情况。因此，本文建议通过由下而上之国际合作方式，先进行科研合作，逐步建立共识与信心后，再成立合作管理机构，以便实时解决资源危机，也可避开成立国际组织之政治疑虑。 【Abstract】Since the entry into force of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) in 1994, the fact that coastal States may expand their jurisdiction over the fishing resources to 200 nautical miles has become the mainstream management system for the world's marine fisheries. It also shifts the focus of development and conservation of marine fisheries on the remaining fishery resources in the high seas, especially the highly migratory species and the straddling fish stocks. Up to now, a number of regional fisheries management organizations (RFMOs) have been established to conserve and manage highly migratory species. In the past decade, dozens of conservation and management measures directed at highly migratory species were passed, which have enabled some overfished resource groups to recover gradually. However, there has been slow progress in promoting management of many straddling stock resources due to conflicts of interest between relevant countries. As for the straddling fish stocks in the northwestern Pacific between China Mainland, Japan, South Korea, and China Taiwan, there have been almost no negotiations over collaboration and management among the resource utilizing countries. This article introduces the current status of several straddling fish stocks distributed throughout the northwestern Pacific. It then discusses the corresponding management approaches, as well as the reasons why it urgently needs for rapid progress on straddling fish stock management and cooperation to mitigate resource depletion. The structure of the RFMO represents the top-down management model. Application of this model initially involves signing of an international instrument or convention through political consultation, and then the establishment of an organization or commission and its sub-committee to manage fishery resources in accordance with the international instrument or convention. Finally, the conservation objective is to be reached based on the scientific research and debates of research institutes, management-level negotiations and the drawing up and adoption of conservation management measures. However, this model requires lengthy discussion of conventions and time-consuming construction of management committees. Therefore, this model is not applicable to fishery resources requiring urgent management, or those for which there is no consensus on the establishment of an international organization. In this connection，the article recommends that the bottom-up management model should be adopted. This model is implemented through building of consensus and confidence based on scientific collaboration, and establishment of cooperative management organizations thereafter. This management model can facilitate the timely resolving of resource crises. It can also avoid the political impediments involved in setting up international organizations.