Government Support for the Maritime Transport Industry in the European Union and Its Lessons
【中文摘要】海运业作为资金密集和高风险产业，关乎国计民生，海运国家都将航运业发展置于极其重要的地位并予以政策扶持。我国是海运大国，无论是从产业政策出发还是从军事意义上讲，海运业对我国都有特殊意义，但却缺少国家层面的系统性法律和政策支持和保障。而欧盟作为走在全球前列的海运经济体之一，拥有较为健全的海运国家资助政策。作为竞争政策的组成部分，这些资助政 策既有成文法的制度架构，又有判例法的合法性审查。这无疑对我国构建全方位的海运扶持政策具有宝贵的借鉴意义，尤其体现在我国未来船舶登记制度、培养海事人才等的法律和资助政策方面。 【Abstract】The maritime transport industry is highly risky, capital-intensive, and vital to the national economy as well as individual livelihoods. Countries with maritime shipping industries have made them strategic priorities and supported them with government policies. China has a sizable maritime transport industry. For China, the maritime transport industry is significant in the realms of both industrial policy and military importance. However, the Chinese maritime transport industry lacks the support and protection from systemic laws and policies at the national level. As a leading maritime economy, the European Union has a relatively comprehensive governmental policy supporting the transport industry, which forms part of its competition policy. These policies are buttressed by an institutional framework of statutes, as well as case-law-based judicial review of the legality of the policies. They undoubtedly contain valuable lessons for China as it develops a comprehensive policy to support its maritime transport industry, especially the laws and aid policies for a future vessel registration system，the education of maritime professionals, and other areas.