A Study on the Advisory Proceedings before the ITLOS as a Full Court
【中文摘要】国际海洋法法庭《规则》第138条授予法庭全庭以咨询管辖权，并对该项权能的行使作出了简要规定。然而，该条款自制定以来就面临着2方面的挑战：一是法庭在《规则》中授予自身咨询管辖权的法律依据何在；二是该条款的规定过于简化，使得条文中的不少法律概念存在巨大的解释空间，进而给实践中咨询意见的申请和发表带来不确定性。笔者在《国际海洋法法庭全庭咨询管辖权的法律基础研究》—文中对该权能的法律依据问题进行了综述和分析，并得出了法庭制定《规则》第138条的法律依据。本文将对建立在该依据上的咨询管辖权的行使程序进行明确规范。这种规范过程以当前主流司法方法的综合运用为手段，以当前国际社会有效运转所依托的国际法基本原则为根据，努力在法律所追求的确定性与处理国际事务所追求的灵活性之间取得平衡。本文所要解决的问题涉及：《规则》第138条第1款中“与公约目的有关的国际协议的特别规定”的具体范围；第2款“通过任何主体提交”所设定的对人管辖范围；包括“法律问题”在内所构成的对事管辖范围；以及源于第1款中措辞“可以”和第3款中“类比适用第130条至第137条之规定”的斟酌决定权。本文旨在为将来法庭受理咨询案件提供有力参考。 【Abstract】Article 138 of the Rules of the International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea (ITLOS) grants the ITLOS an advisory jurisdiction and lays out general conditions for the exercise of such jurisdiction. However, Article 138 has faced two challenges since its adoption: on one hand, the legal basis for the ITLOS to grant itself an advisory jurisdiction is unclear; on the other hand, the provisions of this article are over simplified that the ITLOS has considerable discretion over the interpretation of the legal terms therein, which in turn brings ambiguities to the procedures of requesting and rendering advisory opinions. In another paper written by this author, On the Legal Basis of Advisory Jurisdiction of ITLOS as a Full Court, this author has reviewed and analyzed the legal basis for the exercise of such jurisdiction, which sheds light on the legal basis for the adoption of Article 138 of the Rules by the ITLOS. This paper intends to clarify the rules of the advisory proceedings grounded on the legal basis described above. Employing the current mainstream judicial methods in an integrated manner, the proposed rules will rest on the basic principles of international law that support the effective functioning of the international community.This structure attempts to strike a balance between the certainty of law and the flexibility of addressing international affairs. This paper covers the following issues: the scope of the provision of “an international agreement related to the purposes of the Convention specifically provides for” as envisaged by Article 138(1); the reach of Competence Ratione Personae prescribed by the expression of “be transmitted to the Tribunal by whatever body” in Article 138(2); the scope of Competence Ratione Materiae, including “legal question[s]”;and the discretion of the ITLOS in accordance with the word of “may” used in Article 138(1) and the phrase of “apply mutatis mutandis articles 130 to 137”used in Article 138(3). This paper aims to provide the ITLOS an enlightening reference in its hearing of advisory cases in the future.