The Agreement on Port State Measures: A Commentary
【中文摘要】国际生物资源养护的严峻形势，促进了港口国管辖在此领域的发展。2009年8月，在联合国粮农组织框架下，《关于预防、制止和消除非法、未报告和未加管制捕捞的港口国措施协定》(以下简称“《港口国措施协定》”)文本的谈判已经完成，并于同年11月由联合国粮农组织大会批准通过。《港口国措施协 定》作为最低国际标准，既为发展中港口国规定了最低要求，也为发达港口国制定更严格的制度保留余地。相对于现有相关国际条约，《港口国措施协定》扩大了适用范围，明确了《港口国措施协定》与国际法的关系、港口国的权利与义务、船旗国的作用、发展中国家的特殊需求、争端解决、临时适用等内容。鉴于目前已有的国家实践以及临时适用条款，不论《港口国措施协定》是否生效，它都将会对国际生物资源养护与管理产生积极的作用。对我国而言，它将强化我国作为国际生物资源利用国的国际义务，值得我国政府及相关企业的重视。 【Abstract】The grave situation confronting the conservation of international living resources has urged the development of port State control in this regard. In August 2009, the negotiation on the text of the Agreement on Port State Measures to Prevent, Deter and Eliminate Illegal, Unreported and Unregulated Fishing (Agreement on Port State Measures) was already completed under the framework of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), and the text was approved by the FAO Conference in November the same year. As a minimum international standard, the Agreement on Port State Measures not only specifies the minimum requirements for developing port States, but also leaves room for developed port States to establish more stringent measures. It is more widely applicable as compared to other relevant existing international agreements, and clearly defines such aspects as its relation with international law, rights and obligations of port States, roles of flag States, special requirements of developing States, dispute settlement and provisional application etc. In view of the current existing State practices and the terms of provisional application，the Agreement on Port State Measures will have positive effects on the conservation and management of international living resources，irrespective of whether it comes into force or not. As for China，a utilizing country of international living resources, its international obligations are to be increased as a result of this agreement, which demands attention from the government as well as related enterprises.