Research on Jurisdiction in Exclusive Economic Zone：Particular Areas,Ice-covered Areas and Particularly Sensitive Sea Areas
【中文摘要】根据《联合国海洋法公约》的规定，沿海国在其专属经济区内的 管辖权包括三个方面：海洋科学研究，海洋环境的保护和保全，人工岛屿、设施和结构的建造、管理和使用。沿海国对上述事项的管辖权事实上包括立法管辖权和执法管辖权两个方面，而涉及海洋环境保护和保全的沿海国执法管辖权的行使又要受到公约中其他条款的严格限制，其目的是达到沿海国利益和他国航行等利益之间的平衡。但是，近年来，不少国家以保护海洋生物资源、特殊的航行条件或脆弱的海洋生态自然环境等理由，在本国的专属经济区内设立海洋保护区、特别敏感海域、海洋自然公园等保护目的和名称各异的海洋保护区域，并在这些区域内适用限制船舶航行和其他人类活动的保护措施和执法管辖权。这些措施对建立在《联合国海洋法公约》相关条款之上的沿海国和他国之间权利义务的微妙平衡产生了影响，另一方面也存在针对外国船舶的执法管辖权以及这些保护措施本身的国际法依据问题。为此，有必要对特别区域、冰封区域 和特别敏感海域的形成背景、国际法依据、设定的要件和程序、沿海国的立法和执行权的范畴进行比较研究，并探讨我国在该领域的立法现状和存在的问题。 【Abstract】Based on the provisions of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS)，a coastal State may exercise jurisdiction in its exclusive economic zone in the following three aspects: maritime scientific research, the protection and preservation of the marine environment, and the establishment, management and use of artificial islands, installations and structures. The above jurisdiction actually includes legislative jurisdiction and jurisdiction to enforce; while the coastal State's exercise of jurisdiction in law enforcement with respect to the protection and preservation of the marine environment is subject to rigid restrictions in the UNCLOS，so as to balance the coastal State's interests with those of other countries such as navigational rights. However, in recent years, many countries have been establishing marine protected zones within their exclusive economic zones with various names, such as marine protected areas, particularly sensitive sea areas，or marine nature parks，and for diverse purposes such as protecting marine life, special navigational conditions, or vulnerable marine ecological environment, while taking protective measures and exercising enforcement jurisdiction to restrict navigation and other human activities in these areas. These measures have exerted an impact on the delicate balance of UNCLOS-based rights and obligations between the coastal States and other States. Also, there arises the issue of legal bases in international law with respect to jurisdiction to enforce law against foreign vessels and these protective measures per se. Therefore, it is imperative to make comparative research on the backgrounds，bases in international law，requirements and procedures for establishment, limits of the coastal State's powers of legislation and enforcement, with respect to particular areas, ice-covered zones and particularly sensitive sea areas; and to discuss China's current legislation in this field as well as existing problems.