International Cooperation in Fisheries Law Enforcement at Sea：China Mainland's Practice
【中文摘要】长期以来，海洋渔业制度中存在的主要问题之一就是缺乏有效的监测、管理、监督和执法机制。加强国家间海洋渔业的执法合作是国际渔业法律制度的一个明确发展方向。本文阐述了海洋渔业执法合作的法律基础，介绍了我国大陆与美国、日本、韩国、越南等国家开展海洋渔业执法国际合作的三种不同方式：一是派遣授权的执法人员参加合作方的海上执法巡航，对违法渔船进行联合登临检查，由船旗国进行处罚；二是双方的渔业执法船在海上联合编队巡航，或与对方的海上巡航飞机合作，发现可疑违法渔船后交由船旗国进行调查取证和查处；三是将海上观察到的对方可疑违法渔船的信息向对方主管机构通报，由船旗国进行调查取证和处罚。我国大陆海上渔业执法的国际合作呈现出以下几个特点：(1)在现行国际法的框架下开展执法合作，突出了船旗国管辖原则。不管是在公海水域或是在渔业协定规定的水域，渔业执法合作的实践都体现了对船旗国主权和管辖权的尊重，同时也体现了对执法合作方的尊重。(2)海上渔业执法的合作极大地提高了海上执法的成效，有效地打击了违反国际法和国内法的捕鱼活动。 【Abstract】The lack of effective monitoring, management, surveillance and enforcement mechanisms has been one of the crucial problems confronting marine fisheries for a long time. Therefore, strengthening intergovernmental cooperation in law enforcement is a clear trend in the international legal regime on fisheries. This article explains the legal bases for cooperation in fisheries law enforcement at sea and introduces the three fisheries law enforcement approaches adopted by China Mainland based on its cooperation practice with the United States, Japan, South Korea, and Vietnam: (1) dispatching authorized law enforcement officers to participate in law enforcement patrols at sea and conducting joint visits and investigations on board illegal fishing vessels, but leaving the flag State to assess the penalty; (2) forming a joint patrol team with fisheries law enforcement vessels or with patrol planes from both Parties but, once a suspected vessel is detected, leaving the flag State to conduct investigation and decide on the penalty for illegal activities; (3) informing the other Party’s competent authorities of a suspected illegal fishing vessel flying the other Party’s flag, and leaving the flag State to conduct investigation and decide on the penalty. The international cooperation undertaken by China Mainland for fisheries law enforcement at sea has the following features: (1) enforcement cooperation is conducted under the framework of current international law, highlighting the principle of flag State jurisdiction. Cooperation for fisheries law enforcement, whether on the high seas or in agreed-upon fishing waters, demonstrates China's respect for the sovereignty and jurisdiction of the flag State as well as the respect for the other party; (2) cooperation on fisheries law enforcement at sea greatly improves the performance of law enforcement at sea and effectively cracks down on fishing activities that violate international and domestic laws.