Research on the International Convention for the Control and Management of Ships' Ballast Water and Sediments
【中文摘要】随着国际贸易和船运技术的迅速发展，压载水所含的有害水生物和病原体越来越成为全球环境和资源安全以及人类健康的重大威胁。国际海事组织肩负起起草第一部关于压载水管理国际公约的重任，并于2004年通过了《控制和管理船舶压载水和沉积物国际公约》。该公约虽然尚未生效，但其具体明确和循序渐进的管理措施对各国实践具有重要的指导意义。对中国而言，随着石油进口量的激增，每天经由中东、非洲和东南亚进入中国港口的油轮班次也在不断增多，其携带的压载水必然含有大量外来物种，必须对其进行及时、有效的管理和控制。本文在对该公约进行评述的同时，还介绍了 1982年《联合国海洋法公约》的相关规定，并对中国目前相应的立法情况进行总结，提出立法建议。 【Abstract】Along with the rapid development of international trade and shipping technology, harmful aquatic organisms and pathogens contained in ballast water have increasingly become a major threat to the global environment and resource safety, as well as to human health. The International Maritime Organization drafted the first international convention for the management of ballast water and adopted the International Convention for the Control and Management of Ships’ Ballast Water and Sediments in 2004. Even though the Convention has not yet taken effect, its specific and step-by-step management measures serve as an important practical guide for every country. In China，due to the sharp increase in imported petroleum, the number of oil tankers entering Chinese ports each day from the Middle East, Africa, and Southeast Asia has also steadily increased. The ballast water in such tankers inevitably contains a large quantity of alien species, and thus it is necessary to manage and control them in a timely and effective manner. This article elaborates on the aforementioned Convention, introduces relevant regulations of the 1982 UN Convention on the Law of the Sea, summarizes the current relevant Chinese legislation, and proposes recommendations for it.