Determining Remunerations in the General Equilibrium Between Two Sectors:An Empirical Analysis Based on Provincial Panel Data
- 2015年 
【中文摘要】对于20世纪90年代中期以来中国劳动报酬份额下降的问题，目前的研究多从宏观层面进行分析。基于劳动力市场和产品市场同时均衡条件下劳动报酬份额的决定机制，在一个将资本-产出比、技术进步、FDI、进出口贸易等关键变量内生化的联立方程模型中进行三阶段最小二乘估计，可从微观角度分析中国劳动报酬份额下降的成因。研究发现，居民在劳动力市场上因整体谈判力下降以及在产品市场上因面对价格加成而导致的福利损失，可能超过了企业因利润增加而惠及员工的收益。这些效应因经济全球化趋势下，收人分配中向资方倾斜而被进一步强化，最终导致劳动报酬在初次分配中的比重和居民收入在国民收入分配中的比重下降。进一步检验发现，劳动力市场分割、垄断行业与非垄断行业分化、宏观税负过髙以及两头在外的加工贸易和FDI，均不利于劳动报酬份额的提髙。 【Abstract】Most studies of the proportional decrease in remunerations for Chinese workers that has occurred since the mid-1990s have approached the problem at the macro-level. This study looks into the mechanism for determining the proportion of remunerations for workers in the context of simultaneous equilibrium between the labor market and the product market. It is an investigation at the micro-level into various factors for the proportional decrease in remunerations for Chinese workers by 3SLS，a method of estimation using a simultaneous equations model which includes such endogenous variables as capital-output ratio, technical progress，FDI and foreign trade. It reveals that residents’ welfare loss，due to an overall decrease of their bargaining power in the labor market and the price markup in the product market， probably exceeds the benefits that enterprises give their workers owing to profit increases. Such effects have been strengthened due to inclination of income distribution towards employers in the context of economic globalization， resulting in proportional decreases of remunerations in the primary distribution as well as in proportional decreases of residents’ income in the national income distribution. Further tests reveal that labor market segmentation， polarization across monopoly and non-monopoly industries， excessive macro-tax burdens， processing trade in which China benefits from the middle phase only， and FDI， are all unfavorable factors for proportional increases of remunerations for Chinese workers.