Garden Dramatics and Dramas' Development in the North and the South China in the Mid Qing Dynasty
- 2015年 
【中文摘要】清代南北园林分别以士人园林与皇家园林为代表。清康乾以降，士人由园林退回书斋，由艺术转而专注学术，江南园林声伎渐趋衰落，士阶层引领戏曲发展的主导作用大大削弱。与此同时，北方皇家园林演剧却蔚为兴盛，清宫帝后大臣雅俗共赏的审美趣味引导了戏曲发展的主旋律。在南北园林演剧此消彼长以及戏曲审美雅俗嬗变的背景下，北方京剧逐渐取代江南昆曲占据了剧坛的主导地位。从士人园林到皇家园林，从昆曲到京剧，园林不仅在清代戏曲的发展中持续参与着戏曲艺术的构建，而且南北园林中各自形成的戏曲生态与接受主体，对清代南北戏曲的嬗递演进产生不可忽视的影响。 【Abstract】Scholars’ gardens in South and royal garden in North China are the archetypes of the Qing Dynasty. In the late Qianlong period，scholars began to return to their studies from garden so as to concentrate on their academic career. As a result，literati garden culture and acoustic art had declined gradually since the Mid-Ming Dynasty in the region of south China，and the influence exerted by scholars to development of drama had weakened greatly. At the same time，drama performance in northern royal garden was booming. The tastes of palace aristocrats led the melody of drama. In the course of vicissitudes and transformation betw，een North-South gardens culture，Peking Opera replaced Kun Opera and get a dominant position in theatrical circles. It indicated that a new era for Chinese drama was coming. From south literati gardens to northern royal garden， from Kun Opera to Peking Opera， gardens not only participated the developing of opera art continuously，but also exerted a crucial influence on the vicissitudes of the Ming and the Qing drama through drama's existence condition and its participants.