Knowledge as Action
- 2014年 
【中文摘要】知识和判断是意向性行动的形式。一个判断是一个企图，这就是那种意向性行动的形式。然而，知道P就是去判断P，并实现该判断所固有的目的，即适切地断定的目的。适切地断定就是达到以某种方式展示一个人的相关胜任力的断定所带来的成功。如果一个人做判断，那么他必须瞄准那个目标：一个人必须真势地断定——也就是说，致力于真或正确性——并且我们必须也致力于这个企图适切的成功。一个人必须致力于通过他的相关认知胜任力的某种展示来确保正确。 【Abstract】Knowledge and judgment are forms of intentional action. A judgment is an atempt，a form of that intentional action. To know that P，however，is to judge that P and to achieve the constitutive aim of that judgment，which is the aim of affirming aptly. To affirm aptly is to attain success in one's affirmation in a way that manifests one's relevant competence. And that is what one must aim for if one is to judge: one must affirm alethically—that is，aiming at truth or correct- ness—and one must also aim to succeed aptly in this attempt. One must aim at getting it right through a manifestation of one's relevant epistemic competence.