Zhuism,Neo-Confucianism:Change in the Tang and Song Dynasties and Practice in the Ming and Qing Dynasties
- 2014年 
【中文摘要】理学的形成可以说是宋代最为重要的历史特征之一，然而到了近现代，理学竟然成为最为人们诟病的文化传统。从学术的层面来思考，人们往往把宋代理学的研究引入两个极端。一方面是因为随着近现代西方人文社会科学的引进，理学的研究被划入哲学研究的专业范围，而历史学的研究，又往往被断代史的分割而无端阻隔。从完整的意义上说，宋代理学应该包含道德倡导与社会构建的两个部分的内容体系。经过元明清历朝政府的改造与制度化实践，宋代理学中所拥有的社会批判精神逐渐消失，作为皇权政治的附庸文化角色则得到空前的加强。而宋代理学中的关于基层社会管理与民间礼仪的部分，较少受到政府制度化的影响，因而得到了比较良好的实践与传承。时至今日，我们依然不能对于宋代理学所提倡的具有社会和谐意义的家族制度等视而不见和全盘否定。 【Abstract】It may be asserted that the formulation of “neo-Confucianism”in the Song Dynasty is one of its most important historical characteristics，which，however，became a most-criticized traditional culture in modern times. From a pure academic perspective，the study of “neo-Confucianism” often goes to two extremes. On the one hand，the study of “neo-Confucianism” is included in the study of philosophy due to the introduction of western humanities and social sciences into China in modern times. On the other hand，the study of Chinese history is cut up by the segmentation of dynastic historical studies in an unreasonable way. Taken as a whole，“neo-Confucianism” of the Song Dynasty should be regarded as composed of two parts: moral promotion and social construction. The social critical spirit embodied in neo-Confucianism of the Song Dynasty gradually diminished due to governmental transformations and institutionalized practices in the Yuan，Ming and Qing Dynasties. However，its role as the vassal culture of imperial politics was enhanced unprecedentedly. The components regarding basic social management and folk rites in “neo-Confucianism” remained less affected by governmental institutionalizations，and had been well preserved and practiced. This paper argues that even today we should give due attention to the family system conducive to a harmonious society that was advocated by “neo-Confucianism”.