“sage Inside and Kingly Outside”from the Perspective of Struggle between “Unity”and “Independence”：A Study of the Theme of Chuang-Tzu：Thien Hsia
- 2014年 
【中文摘要】“内圣外王”一语出自《庄子•天下篇》，被许多研究者认为是该篇主旨，但对其内涵 的理解和阐释至今没有形成较为一致的看法。细读《天下篇》可以发现，“一”与“裂”之争是全文的逻辑主线，其中蕴藏着《天下篇》作者“崇一抑裂”的态度。而“内圣外王”正是《天下篇》视为“一”的“古之道术”，是先秦诸子学的共同旨归，是注重整全性的古典政治哲学思想。在先秦诸子兴起、百家争鸣的时代背景下，“内圣外王之道”“为天下裂”，具体体现为诸家各异、各执一端的学说和举措。而从战国末期至汉初的诸多经典文献都表明，熔百家之说而成君王一家治术已开始成为学术主流，由“裂”返“一”，才是真正认识“内圣外王”的唯一途径。 【Abstract】“Sage inside and kingly outside” has been regarded as the theme of Chuang-Tzu： Thien Hsid by many researchers ，but there is still no consensus as to how to understand and explain the real meaning of this phrase. By perusing Thien Hsia，we find that the logic of the whole text is developed along the struggle between “unity” and “independence”. Implicit in this logic is the author's advocacy of “unity against independence”； meanwhile，“sage inside and kingly outside” is viewed by the author as the antique art of “unity”，an objective which scholars in the pre-Qin period all pursued， and which represents the classical political philosophy emphasizing unity and integrity. In the context of all schools of thoughts contending for attention， “the way of keeping sage inside and kingly outside” was torn into fragments by those scholars who stuck to their own tenets of ideology. Classic works from the end of the Period of Warring States to the early period of the Han Dynasty suggest that integrating various schools of thoughts into a united art of governance had become a mainstream theoretical endeavor. Therefore，this paper argues that the trend of returning from independence to unity serves as an important clue by which we can obtain an accurate understanding of the meaning of “sage inside and kingly outside”.