Internal Structure and Labor Services of Artisan Households during the Ming Period: Toward and Interpretation of the Relationship between Imperial Institutions and Social Life
- 2014年 
【中文摘要】明代实行的匠户世袭制度，对民众社会生活产生了深刻的影响。其一，这一制度为民众社会关系的建构提供了动力和契机。为承担世袭性的匠役，从明初开始，不少匠户就与没有血缘联系的匠户合充匠户户籍。随着时间推移，匠户内部形成了复杂的权利义务关系。为处理这些关系，负责料理本户服役事务的户首也应运而生。在此过程中，匠户在制度的推动下，超越“原生性归属”的界限，与本无社会关系的其他民众打交道。其二，这一制度拓宽了民众的空间活动范围。明代匠户分为住坐和轮班两种，轮班匠需定期前往指定地点服役，住坐匠除在固定地点应役外，尚需轮流承担繁重的解运任务。为了服役，匠户不得不定期前往政府指定的地区，参与区域性乃至跨区域的空间流动，在此过程中，他们的空间活动范围被大大拓宽了。 【Abstract】The artisan household system greatly influenced the social life in the Ming dynasty. On the one hand，the system provided dynamics and opportunities for people to construct social connections. In order to undertake hereditary labor service，a number of artisan households were made of several families without kinship connection from the early Ming period. Gradually a complicated relationship of rights and obligations developed within the households. To deal with them，household heads in charge of organizing the household's fiscal affairs also came into being. On the other hand，the system broadened the scope of physical mobility. The artisan households were divided into two categories ： those who provided permanent services and those who provided services on regular basis. The latter were obliged to provide services at appointed agencies of the state，most of them distant from home，while the former not only provided permanent services，but also were expected to deliver products to state-appointed places. They both，therefore，often had to travel to distant places and participate in regional or trans-regional mobility，and the scope of their physical mobility was thus greatly broadened.