Animal Welfare VS Free Trade：On the WTO Case “European Communities-Measures Prohibiting the Importation and Marketing of Seal Products”
- 2014年 
【中文摘要】维护贸易自由和保护动物福利之间的矛盾日益引起国际社会的普遍关注。2013年11月15日，WTO争端解决机构就其受理的第一起以动物福利为贸易限制措施基础的标志性案件——“欧盟禁止海豹产品进口措施案”发布专家组报告，认可欧盟地区性动物福利保护这类公共道德价值目标的正当性与重要性，同时从法律细节上否定欧盟争议措施的合法性，从而试图在二者之间寻求平衡。对该案的分析表明，动物福利措施兼具保护动物的合理性与变相贸易保护的不合理性。欧盟海豹禁令的单边主义色彩不符合WTO所倡导的多边理念，并非解决多边贸易问题的最佳途径。寻求合理替代措施、加强国际对话与合作更有利于地区性及全球动物福利保护水平的提升。 【Abstract】The contradiction between the protection of trade freedom and the protection of animal welfare has increasingly become a universal concern in the international community. On November 15，2013，the DSB of the WTO published its panel report “European Communities—Measures Prohibiting the Importation and Marketing of Seal Products”，which，as a landmark case，is the first case dealt with on the principle of restricting trade for the protection of animal welfare. The report recognizes the legitimacy and significance of such public moral concerns as EU's protection of animal welfare but denies the legality of the legal details in the EU measures for resolving the disputes. By doing so,the panel hopes to strike a balance between the parties involved. This study analyzes this case and shows that the animal-welfare measures are rational in terms of animal protection but irrational in terms of disguised trade protection. The unilateralism manifest in EU's prohibition of the trade of seal products is inconsistent with the multilateralism promoted by the WTO. Therefore it is not the best solution to multilateral trade. This paper argues that seeking reasonable alternative measures and strengthening international dialogue and cooperation will prove more helpful for the improvement of the protection of animal welfare at both regional and global lecels.