Imperial Examination as "Established Policy"：ZHU Yuan-zhang's Choice after the Trial of Recommendation
- 2013年 
【中文摘要】在征伐期间或甫国初定之时，朱元璋将荐举作为选材的主要手段。洪武三年，朱元璋下诏停用荐举，以科举作为基本选士制度。但科举中式者多为没有实际行政能力的年轻书生，因此他认为科举不如荐举，下诏停罢科举、使用荐举。随着荐举制度的推行，朱元璋逐渐认识到：荐举无法实现选拔真才的目的，其根本原因是缺乏客观评价的标准；而科举却在牢笼英才、笼络士子 之心、稳固统治秩序方面有着无可比拟的优势。因此，朱元璋于洪武十五年再次恢复科举，科举被确立为“永制”，成为明代选士的基本制度。 【Abstract】During the wars before or at the early period of the Ming Dynasty，ZHU Yuan-zhang adopted the Recommendation System as the major means to select talents. In the third year of Hongwu Reign，ZHU Yuan-zhang decreed that the practice of Recommendation be suspended and an Imperial Examination System be initiated to select scholars for official posts. But the fact that those scholars selected through the examinations were mostly young people without actual administrative capacity made ZHU Yuan-zhang realize that the Imperial Examination System performed worse than the Recommendation System，and thus he decreed the suspense of the Imperial Examination System once again and reverted to the Recommendation System. However， ZHU Yuan-zhang gradually realized that the Recommendation System was not effective for selecting real talents for its lack of objective assessment standard. By contrast，the Imperial Examination System had unprecedented advantages in attracting talents and winning their hearts as well as stabilizing socio-political order. Consequently， the Imperial Examination System was rehabilitated as the “established policy" for selecting scholars for official posts in the fifteenth year of Hongwu Reign， and thereafter it became the fundamental policy of selecting scholars in the Ming Dynasty.