Approaching Expertise from a Rhetoric Perspective
- 2013年 
【中文摘要】从修辞学视角研究专业能力，有助于研究者冲破各个专门学科的藩篱，发现不同学科专业能力语言表征中隐藏的修辞共性。美国修辞学家哈特列斯从修辞学视角对专业能力的研究表明：专业能力实际上是修辞的建构物，可以说是一种独立的体裁。传统意义上的专业能力特指专家所拥有的知识和技能，哈氏认为，专业能力不仅指不同于别人的知识和技能，它本身还包含着争夺所有权和合法性的努力。从修辞学视角研究专业能力有两大优势，不仅可以整合劝说艺术和非艺术手段，还注重创造与表现的研究。影响辞性创造与表现的因素有修辞者的优秀品格、修辞者对身份与认同的追求和受众。尽管不同领域的专业能力有天壤之别，但其使用的修辞手段却有诸多共性。未来的研究应进一步对专业能力的修辞共性作探讨，发掘更多的共性，同时还应将已发现的共性在更多的专业领域中进行验证以确定其普遍性。 【Abstract】Approaching expertise from a rhetoric perspective is likely to enable researchers to break out of disciplinary constraints and discover implicit rhetoric congruities in linguistic representations of knowledge and skills of various specific fields. An in-depth study through such an approach by E. Johanna Hartelius, an American scholar on rhetoric, indicates that expertise is in effect the very construct of rhetoric, which may best be regarded as an independent genre. Traditionally, expertise is defined as knowledge and skills owned by experts, but Hartelius believes that expertise is composed of not only knowledge and skills but also efforts to win ownership and legitimacy. Two advantages of approaching expertise from a rhetoric perspective are ： it integrates the art of persuasion and inartistic devices and it emphasizes the study of creation and performance. Factors influencing rhetorical creation and performance include excellent ethos of rhetors, their pursuit of identity and identification, and their audience. Despite the many differences between different fields of knowledge, the rhetorical devices each field employs share many congruities. It is suggested that scholars studying expertise from a rhetoric perspective should further explore their congruities and find more of them while testing them across many different fields of knowledge to establish its universality.