Strengthening the Government Regulation of the Guild Halls in the Middle and Late Qing Dynasty
- 2013年 
【中文摘要】从台北故宫档案馆所藏乾隆到咸丰年间中央与地方政府对会馆进行监管的档案材料，我们可以看到过去不大为政府所关注的会馆组织已逐渐进人统治者的视野，政府监管逐渐加严。对于以会馆聚集起来的团体起事，政府的干预呈加强趋势；对于会馆内可能存在的藏匿奸宄， 或会馆是否参与囤贮私盐等的查禁也逐渐加严；当政府面临战事而国家财政又相对较紧时，向会馆赊借或直接动员会馆捐输，成为补充军需不足的重要途径。由以上三个方面看，会馆在乾隆至咸丰年间，随着商品经济的进一步繁荣，呈现出更加兴盛的局面，且实力获得了加强。会馆的主体仍是积极的，在社会秩序的稳定方面发挥了作用。 【Abstract】In Taipei's National Palace archives there are seven files about government regulation of the guild halls, including the central and local governments regulations of the guild halls from the Qianlong to the Xianfeng years. Through these memorials, we can see the guild halls organizations gradually entered the ruler's regulatory vision. The government needs to lessen the possibilities of guild halls groups uprising and to find out bad elements hidden in the hall, and to try to stop the hall participating in smuggling salt. During the wartime when the national treasury is relatively tight, the government may borrow from the guild halls or directly mobilize donations which has become an important way of supplementing inadequate munitions . From the above three aspects, the guild halls had a more prosperous situation in the Qianlong to the Xianfeng years. With the further prosperity of the commodity economy the guild halls were more active and played a role for the social stability.