On Jean-Jacsques Rouseau's Democratic Thoughts
- 2013年 
【中文摘要】20世纪之后，卢梭的人民主权的民主思想更多地受到诘难和否定。事实上，平等观念是卢梭民主思想的基本前提。卢梭是从平等的诉求走向民主政治的建构的，平等是民主的前提， 没有平等就没有民主，而民主则是平等的实现，民主是人人平等的政治共同体。人民主权是卢梭 民主思想的核心理念。建立在社会契约论基础上的人民主权理论是一种规范性的民主理论，人民主权是现代民主国家的根本原则，是现代民主国家的合法性基础，以事实上的实证经验来否定作为规范的人民主权理论是不恰当的。公意概念是卢梭民主思想的重要基石。卢梭将服从公意看做个人自由的保证，并强调个人服从公意时仍然享有生命、财富和自由的自然的权利，反对以公意来压制个人的自由，所谓集体的暴政、极权主义民主的说法并不符合卢梭的民主思想。 【Abstract】In the contemporary time, Rousseau’s democracy thoughts receive more and more criticisms. In fact, Equality is an essential premise of Jean-Jacques Rousseau ’s democratic thoughts. Rousseau held democratic politics should be started from the equality rights. Without equality, there would be no democracy. Equality is the precondition of democracy and democracy is the achievement form of equality. Democracy is a political community in which everyone is equal.People's sovereignty is the fundamental idea of Rousseau ’ s democratic thoughts, which is founded on the social agreement and belongs to the normative democratic theory. People ’s sovereignty is the fundamental rule and the legitimate foundation of the modern democratic state. It is inappropriate to use the empirical evidences to deny the normative theory of the people ’ s sovereignty. According to him, the concept of public will is one of the important cornerstones, which is the guarantee of the individual ’ s liberty. Although the individual should obey the public will, Rousseau underscored that the individuals treasure the rights of living, wealthy and liberty, and oppose repression of the individual liberty through using public will.What is called the collective tyranny and totalitarian democracy do not conform to his democratic thoughts.