Comments on Immanuel Kant and Friedrich Schleiermacher's Categorical Imperative
- 2013年 
【中文摘要】至善问题或者说德性与幸福的关系问题，是康德和施莱尔马赫伦理学所关注的核心问题，而二人对该问题的看法却迥然不同。康德论证了德性和幸福虽然具有不同性质，但是仍然 可以作为至善的两个要素达到协调一致。施莱尔马赫严厉地批判了康德把二者联结起来的做法。 他认为德性与幸福是相互冲突的，至善只有排除经验性的幸福要素，与道德法则相一致，才能真正有意义。康德和施莱尔马赫的至善学说都既有深刻的洞见，又有明显的缺陷，比较二人观点的得失对于我们重新思考德性与幸福的关系具有重要的借鉴意义。 【Abstract】Immanuel Kant and Friedrich Schleiermacher thought very differently about the categorical imperative, or the relation between virtue and happiness, which is the central? concern in the ethics of Kant and Schleiermacher. Kant argues that virtue and happiness, though different in nature, can be coordinated as two elements of the categorical imperative. This view is harshly criticized by Schleiermacher who believes that virtue and happiness are mutually exclusive and only when it is aligned with virtue and insulated from experimental happiness, can the categorical imperative be meaningful. Both of their theories of the categorical imperative are insightful but apparently flawed. This paper argues that a comparison of the merits and demerits of their viewpoints will be helpful in our efforts to rethink the relationship between virtue and happiness.