A Preliminary study of the Roman Banking Law：Exploring the Origin of Commecial Laws
- 2013年 
【中文摘要】现在人们普遍认为商法产生于中世纪商人法，罗马法中无商法。该观点源自对商法范畴在历史语境下具体分析的阙如，其论据主要为罗马法律词汇中没有表示商法部门及区别于一 般私法制度的概念和术语。通过分析原始文献可以发现这些论据是不成立的。裁判官为了因应罗马国家的扩张，在告示和相关司法活动中创造出一系列专门规制此等特殊法律关系的规范，昭示了实质意义上的商法的诞生，银行法为其重要组成部分。银行业活动在公元前4世纪便已在罗马出现，在商业化时代获得重大发展。为规范这些具有特殊性的活动，罗马法学在司法管辖、组织机构、账簿出示、抵销等具体制度中回应了实践的要求。在从商业化时代向优士丁尼时期的转变过程中，银行业经历了衰落与复兴，并在相关法律规范中映射了这一过程。 【Abstract】 It is widely acknowledged that commercial laws originated from Ius Mercatorum in the Middle Ages and commercial laws in its proper sense did not exist under the Roman Law. This viewpoint is due to the absence of specific analysis of the category of commercial law in historical contexts, the main argument for which lies in the non-existence of particular concepts and terms in the Roman legal language. However, if we examine original legal texts, that argument can be proved groundless. In order to meet the demands of an expanding Roman, Roman jurisprudence developed a series of regulations to specify particular economic practices, which indicated the birth of a commercial law in a real sense, with a banking law being an important pari. Banking service originated in Rome in the 4th century BC and was greatly developed in thecommercial period. In order to regulate these particular activities, Roman jurisprudence developed a set of specil rules in jurisdictions, organizations, offset, account books etc. From the commercial period to the time of Justinian, Roman banking service went through decline and revival, which was reflected in its relevant legal norms.