Rice Trade and Social Competition in the Lower Reaches of Xiangjiang River in the Early Qing Dynasty
【中文摘要】清前期，湘江下游地区成为全国重要的米谷输出地，本地积贮大量米谷的地主富户、 市场中的粮行、来自外省的米商和常平仓采买人员、地方官，都积极地参与到米谷流动和贸易中。 粮行和地主富户通过控诉地方官试图改变常平仓的采买办法，社仓社长与地方官相互勾结经营社 仓获利，粮行则通过强力吸纳米谷或通过让利吸引客商以求把持行市。地方官员、客商、粮行和富 户在同一个米谷交易和米价变动的空间中互相较量。这个过程呈现了商品贸易对于社会群体及 其之间关系的影响，有助于讨论市场、国家与社会之间的互动关系。 【Abstract】The lower reaches of Xiangjiang River in Hunan became nationally famous rice trade center during the early Qing Dynasty. Landlords who owned large quanlilies of rice, rice brokers, local officials and rice merchants from outside Hunan all contributed to the development of this trade center. Rice brokers and landlords tried to change the trading methods by accusing local officials of unfair control over rice trade; rice merchants and local officials joined hands obtaining maximum profit; rice brokers tried to control the market by attracting or making good offers to merchants. Local officials, rice merchants, rice brokers and landlords grappled on this battlefield of rice trade and price fluctuation. This process showcased the impact of merchandise trading on social groups and their relations. This paper argues that a good understanding of this process can contribute to discussion on the interactions between market, state and society.