Attempts of Returning to Freedom of Contract in the Public Transport Field: Comment on Regulation on Maritime Service Contracts by the UNCITRAL Draft Convention on the Carriage of Goods [Wholly or Partly] [by Sea]
【中文摘要】公共运输领域中的海运服务协议具有彰显契约自由的特性，并且在当前的国际班轮贸易中发挥着重要作用。现行的海运统一法以限制公共承运人的 契约自由为主要的秩序价值，故而不能对海运服务协议加以有效的规制。正在拟 定的《运输法公约》创设了适用于具有海运服务协议性质的批量合同的规则框架， 它突破了海运统一法限制公共承运人契约自由的传统，是在新一轮海上货运法统 一化运动的秩序价值的诉求上进行的，是在公共运输领域中对回归契约自由的尝试。 【Abstract】 Maritime service contracts in the public transport field feature a demonstration of freedom of contract and play a significant role in the current international liner trade. The main order value of the existing unified law on maritime transport lies in restricting common carrier's freedom of contract and hence cannot provide effective regulation on maritime service contracts. The Draft Convention on the Carriage of Goods [Wholly or Partly] [by Sea] currently being drafted establishes a framework of rules that is applicable to volume contracts, which is in the nature of maritime service contracts. This, however, contradicts the tradition of restricting the common carrier's freedom of contract established by the unified law on maritime transport, and is based on the appeal to value of a new round of calls for the unification of laws on carriage of goods by sea that represents an attempt to return to freedom of contract in the public transport field.