The Evolution of the Precautionary Principle
【中文摘要】风险预防原则最早起源于德国和瑞士国内立法，被用于处理环境危 险事宜。随着风险预防原则的发展，其他国家，如荷兰和美国，也逐渐将其纳入本国环境与资源保护法规中，并作为其中的一项重要原则。在国际层面上，风险预 防原则经历了从“能力许可方式“到“预防性方式”的转变，并得到了很多国际公 约的认可，而且成为国际司法机构裁断案件的重要依据。从各国国内环境立法， 以及众多的国际条约和国际司法判例来看，风险预防原则事实上已经成为环境法 和海洋法的一项基本原则。 【Abstract】The precautionary principle originated in the domestic legislation of Germany and Switzerland involving environmental hazards. With the development of the precautionary principle, other countries like the Netherlands and the United States also incorporated it into their laws on the protection of their environments and resources as a fimdamental principle. At the international level，the norm has evolved from a “permissible emissions” approach to a “precautionary” approach. The precautionary principle has been recognized by many international conventions and become an important point of reference for international judicial bodies. The domestic environmental laws of many countries as well as a great number of international treaties and judicial precedents under international law show that the precautionary principle is by now a basic principle in environmental law and the law of the sea.