Military Survey and Liquid Cargo Transfer in the EEZ: Some Undefined Rights of the Coastal State
【中文摘要】近几年来，“臭名昭著”的美国“鲍迪奇”号及其姐妹舰在印度和中国（主要是东海海域）专属经济区开展了多项军事测量。印度和中国均对此提出 抗议并指出美国违反了《联合国海洋法公约》（以下简称“《公约》”）中科学研究的 相关规定。此外，为了规避港口费和关税，如今有越来越多的外国船舶在沿海国 专属经济区内进行液货过驳作业，给沿海国的海洋环境带来很高的风险。仔细分 析《公约》后，笔者认为，因为公约立法意图明显是为非军事、和平目的，故而专 属经济区内的军事测量和液货过驳权利以及其他未明确的权利应归属于沿海国。 而且，由于《公约》已然成为习惯国际法，包括美国在内的非缔约国也应受其约束。 【Abstract】 In the past several years, the 6tnotorious,5 USS Bowditch and her sister ships have been conducting various military surveys in India's exclusive economic zone (EEZ) and the Chinese EEZ (mainly in the East China Sea area). Both India and China protested and contended that the U.S. violated the rules for scientific research established by the United Nation Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS). Other than these incidents, to save harbor costs and tariffs, more foreign vessels are nowadays transferring liquid cargos in coastal States EEZs, bringing in high risks for the coastal States’ marine environment. After detailed analysis of the UNCLOS, the author concluded that because the legislative intent was clearly for non-military, peaceful aims, these and some other undefined rights in the EEZs should belong to the coastal States. Also, because the UNCLOS has become customary international law, non-contracting party States like the U.S. should be bound by the Convention as well.