Abolishing the Exemption of Liability for Fault in Ship Management in the Nautical Fault Exemption System
【中文摘要】航海过失免责一般表述为：船长、船员、引航员或承运人的受雇人 在驾驶船舶或管理船舶中的行为、疏忽或不履行职责所造成的货物灭失或损坏， 免除承运人的赔偿责任。迄今为止，航海过失免责一直是承运人可援用的最重要 的免责条款，航海过失免责制度的存废也一直是各国和国际海上货物运输立法关 注的焦点之一。本文通过分析航海过失免责的内涵，探悉航海过失免责产生和发 展的社会经济根源，考察当今船货双方利益和风险的分担情况，综合考虑相关因 素，得出对航海过失免责制度进行合理性变革的结论。 【Abstract】The nautical fault exemption generally refers to the carrier,s exemption from liability for the loss or damage of goods arising or resulting from the act, neglect, or default of the master, mariner, pilot, or the servants of the carrier in the navigation or management of the ship. To date, the nautical fault exemption has always been the most important exemption clause for carriers, and countries and legislation on international maritime cargo transport have paid much attention to the question of whether the nautical fault exemption system should continue to exist or be abolished. This paper analyzes the meaning of the nautical fault exemption, explores the socioeconomic roots of its emergence and development, and examines the current allocation of interests and risks between the ship owner and the cargo owner. After taking the relevant factors into account, the paper concludes that the nautical fault exemption system should undergo certain reforms.