International Law Issues Regarding Clandestine Transportation of Nuclear Materials by Sea
【中文摘要】近年来，随着科技的进步以及能源的紧缺，核能的利用已经成为一 种现实的需要。因此核反应堆产生的核废料作为一种能源也得到了一些国家的青 睐，这便使得核材料（主要是核废料）的国际贸易愈发频繁。这种贸易多数要经过 海运，而且往往采取秘密运输的方式。这一问题就牵涉到传统的航行自由与保护 海洋环境以及人类生命安全利益的冲突、预警原则的适用、事前通知要求以及国 家责任的承担等。特别是由于海上运输核材料的国家主要是日本，虽然其运输航 线保密，但无疑已经过南中国海以及我国的台湾海峡。因此，我国应该从国际法 理论以及我国面临的潜在威胁出发，对核材料秘密运输问题予以关注，并寻求保障核材料安全运输的合作方案。 【Abstract】With the advancement of science and technology, the use of nuclear energy has become a necessity in recent years due to extreme energy shortages. As such, some States favor using spent nuclear fuel from nuclear reactors as a form of energy. This has increasingly led to the international trade of nuclear materials, mainly spent nuclear fuel. Most commonly, this trade takes place via clandestine sea transportation. Because of the clandestine nature of this transportation, issues arise as conflicts between traditional navigational freedom laws and the protection of the marine environment and human safety, the applicability of precautionary principle, requirements of prior notice, and assumption of liability of States. In particular, Japan is one of the major States transporting nuclear materials by sea. Despite the clandestine shipping lanes, such Japanese transportation undoubtedly navigates through the South China Sea and Taiwan Straits. Therefore, China must be aware of issues regarding clandestine transportation of nuclear materials by considering theories of international law and the potential threats that it faces. In doing so, China should seek cooperative solutions to safeguard itself against the dangers posed by those States transporting nuclear materials.