On the Interpretative Declarations by the State Parties to United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea concerning the Issue of Innocent Passage of Warships through the Territorial Sea
【中文摘要】关于军舰通过领海问题，第三次联合国海洋法会议没有达成协议， 《联合国海洋法公约》(以下简称“《公约》”)没有直接规定该事项。该公约生效以来, 有些缔约国仍然反对军舰在领海的无害通过权，其中有主张保留针对军舰通过领 海采取维护其安全利益的措施的权利的，有要求军舰通过领海进行事先通知或事 先许可的;同时，有些缔约国仍然坚持军舰在领海与商船享有同样的无害通过权， 其中有认为《公约》允许军舰无害通过领海的，有认为《公约》未授权沿海国要求 事先通知或许可的，有认为军舰在领海无条件地与商船享有同样无害通过权的。 本文认为，根据《公约》和一般国际法，关于军舰通过领海问题，各国（包括《公约》 缔约国）可以自由处理。《公约》允许军舰无害通过领海，也允许沿海国要求事先 通知或许可。通知制比许可制更有利于外国军舰实现在领海的通过，也顾及了沿 海国的利益。军舰在通过外国领海之前，应当查明该沿海国的立场。如果沿海国 有要求事先通知或许可的法律或规章，军舰所属国应予遵守。这是领海的法律地 位和军舰的特殊性质决定的。如果沿海国妨碍执行符合国际法使命的外国军舰的 通过或者使这种通过实际上成为不可能，军舰所属国可以采取对等措施以平衡利 害关系。 【Abstract】On the issue of innocent passage of warships through the territorial sea, the Third United Nations Conference on the Law of the Sea did not reach an agreement, and United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) has no explicit provisions. Since the entry into force of the Convention, a few States Parties have still been opposed to the right of innocent passage of warships in the territorial sea. Some advocate reserving the right to take measures to safeguard their security when warships pass through their territorial sea or requiring warships to pass through the territorial sea with prior notice or permission. Meanwhile, some State Parties still insist that warships enjoy the same right of innocent passage as merchant vessels in the territorial sea, deeming that the UNCLOS permits innocent passage of warships through the territorial sea, or UNLCOS has not authorized coastal States to require prior notification or permission, or warships unconditionally enjoy the same right of innocent passage as merchant vessels in the territorial sea. This paper argues that, according to UNCLOS and general international law, on the issue of warships5 passage through the territorial sea, the States (including the States Parties to UNCLOS) shall have their own discretion. UNCLOS permits warships to innocently pass through the territorial sea and also permits coastal States to require prior notification or permission. Notification system is more favorable than permission system to the passage of foreign warships through the territorial sea, and it also takes coastal States5 interests into account. Prior to the passage through the territorial sea of coastal States, foreign warships should find out the stances of these States. If the coastal States have laws or regulations requiring prior notice or permission, the States to which the warships belong shall abide by these laws or regulations. This is determined by the legal status of the territorial sea and the very nature of warships. If the coastal States hinder foreign warships carrying out missions in accordance with international laws from passing through their territorial sea or render such passage virtually impossible, the States to which the warships belong may take countermeasures to balance the interests.