Systematic studies on the computation of nuclear magnetic resonance shielding constants and chemical shifts: The density functional models
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We present a systematic density functional investigation on the prediction of the C-13, N-15, O-17, and F-19 NMR properties of 23 molecules with 21 density functionals. Extensive comparisons are made for both C-13 magnetic shieldings and chemical shifts with respect to the gas phase experimental data and the best CCSD(T) results. We find that the OPBE and OPW91 exchange-correlation functionals perform significantly better than some popular functionals such as B3LYP and PBE1PBE, even surpassing, in many cases, the standard wavefunction-based method MP2. Further analysis has been performed to explore the individual role played by various exchange and correlation functionals. We find that the B88 and PBE exchange functionals have a too strong tendency of deshielding, leading to too deshielded magnetic shielding constants; whereas the OPTX exchange functional performs remarkably well. We claim that the main source of error arises from the exchange functional, but correlation functional also makes important contribution. We find that the correlation functionals may be grouped into two classes. class A, such as LYP and B98, leads to deshielded NMR values, deteriorating the overall performance; whereas class B, such as PW91 and PBE, generally increases the absolute shieldings, which complements the exchange functionals, leading to improved results in the calculation of NMR data. (c) 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.