The inhibitory effects of garlic (Allium sativum) and diallyl trisulfide on Alexandrium tamarense and other harmful algal species
Zhou, L. H.
Zheng, T. L.
Chen, X. H.（Jimei Univ, Inst Aquaculture Biotechnol, Coll Fisheries, Xiamen 361021, Peoples R China）
Chen, S. B.（Jimei Univ, Inst Aquaculture Biotechnol, Coll Fisheries, Xiamen 361021, Peoples R China）
Hong, H. S.
- 海洋环境－已发表论文 
Using cell suspension ability as an indicator, we studied the inhibitory effect of garlic (Allium sativum) and diallyl trisulfide on six species of red tide causing algae. This included: the inhibition by 0.08% garlic solution of five algal species - Alexandrium tamarense, Scrippsiella trochoidea, Alexandrium catenella, Alexandrium minutum and Alexandrium satoanum; the effects of garlic concentration on the inhibition of A. tamarense, S. trochoidea and Chaetoceros sp.; the effects of inhibitory time on the rejuvenation of algal cells; and the effects of heating and preservation time on algal inhibition by garlic solution. In addition, whether or not the ingredients of garlic solution had a possible algicidal effect was studied by comparing inhibition of A. tamarense by garlic solution and man-made diallyl trisulfide. The results showed that 1) inhibition by garlic solution was significant on A. tamarense, A. satoanum, A. catenella and S. trochoidea, and the least effective was a concentration of 0.04% on A. tamarense and S. trochoidea. Moreover, the higher the concentration, the stronger was the inhibition, and a high inhibitory rate (IR) could be maintained for at least three days when the garlic concentration was above 0.04%. For A. tamarense, it was also found that the longer the inhibitory time and the higher the concentration, the lower was the rate of resumed cell activity. On the contrary, garlic solution could not inhibit A. minutum or Chaetoceros sp.; 2) The IR to A. tamarense was reduced slightly as the heating time of the garlic solution was lengthened, but the average IR was still above 80%. There was no significant difference between the IR of the supernatant and sediment of the garlic solution. Furthermore, no change of algal inhibition was found when the garlic solution was preserved at 20 degrees C for several days; 3) As with garlic solution, diallyl trisulfide inhibited A. tamarense strongly; the IR was above 93% and was maintained for at least three days, as long as the concentration was 3.2-10.0 mg L-1. Thus, diallyl trisulfide may have been the major ingredient in garlic solution which inhibited the algae but, in addition, more than one ingredient may have been inhibiting the algae. In conclusion, garlic was a good algal inhibitor with many advantages, such as being common, cheap, non toxic and with high efficiency, and diallyl trisulfide, one of the components of garlic, was similarly effective in algal inhibition. It would be useful, therefore, to further study garlic as an environmentally friendly algal inhibitor.