In situ observation of microstructure evolution in tungsten under 400 keV Kr+ irradiation
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Tungsten was irradiated with 400 keV Kr+ ions using the IVEM-Tandem Facility at Argonne National Laboratory. The evolution of microstructure and gas bubbles during the irradiation was observed by in situ transmission electron microscopy. Under irradiation, dislocation loops were created and grew into an increased density of network dislocations with increasing Kr+ ion fluence. The irradiation induced final microstructure consists of dislocation cells ～50 nm in diameter separated by dislocation walls. The irradiation also induced formation of Kr gas bubbles with an average diameter of 1.4 nm after 3.0 × 1016 ions/cm2 at 525 K. The gas bubbles were observed to grow to 2.6 nm diameter after additional Kr-irradiation of 5.0 × 1016 ions/cm2 at 815 K. The relationship between bubble size and irradiation time was obtained from experimental data obtained at 815 K and an empirical formula for calculating Kr bubble size was developed by fitting bubble growth equations with experiment data. The growth mechanisms of Kr gas bubbles in tungsten are discussed. ? 2014 Published by Elsevier B.V.