Strain-Promoted Azide-Alkyne Cycloaddition with Ruthenium(II)-Azido Complexes
- 化学化工－已发表论文 
The reactivity of an exemplary ruthenium(II)-azido complex towards non-activated, electron-deficient, and towards strain-activated alkynes at room temperature and low millimolar azide and alkyne concentrations has been investigated. Non-activated terminal and internal alkynes failed to react under such conditions, even under copper(I) catalysis conditions. In contrast, as expected, rapid cycloaddition was observed with electron-deficient dimethyl acetylenedicarboxylate (DMAD) as the dipolarophile. Since DMAD and related propargylic esters are excellent Michael acceptors and thus unsuitable for biological applications, we investigated the reactivity of the azido complex towards cycloaddition with derivatives of cyclooctyne (OCT), bicyclo[6.1.0]non-4-yne (BCN), and azadibenzocyclooctyne (ADIBO). While no reaction could be observed in the case of the less strained cyclooctyne OCT, the highly strained cyclooctynes BCN and ADIBO readily reacted with the azido complex, providing the corresponding stable triazolato complexes, which were amenable to purification by conventional silica gel column chromatography. An X-ray crystal structure of an ADIBO cycloadduct was obtained and verified that the formed 1,2,3-triazolato ligand coordinates the metal center through the central N2 atom. Importantly, the determined second-order rate constant for the ADIBO cycloaddition with the azido complex (k(2)=6.9 x 10(-2)M(-1)s(-1)) is comparable to the rate determined for the ADIBO cycloaddition with organic benzyl azide (k(2)=4.0 x 10(-1)M(-1)s(-1)). Our results demonstrate that it is possible to transfer the concept of strain-promoted azide-alkyne cycloaddition (SPAAC) from purely organic azides to metal-coordinated azido ligands. The favorable reaction kinetics for the ADIBO-azido-ligand cycloaddition and the well-proven bioorthogonality of strain-activated alkynes should pave the way for applications in living biological systems.