H-1-NMR-based metabonomic analysis of metabolic profiling in diabetic nephropathy rats induced by streptozotocin
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Zhao L, Gao H, Lian F, Liu X, Zhao Y, Lin D. H-1-NMR-based metabonomic analysis of metabolic profiling in diabetic nephropathy rats induced by streptozotocin. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 300: F947-F956, 2011. First published January 12, 2011; doi:10.1152/ajprenal.00551.2010.-Elucidation of the metabolic profiling in diabetic nephropathy (DN) rats is of great assistance for understanding the pathogenesis of DN. In this study, H-1-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based metabonomics combined with HPLC measurements was used to quantitatively analyze the metabolic changes in urine and kidney extracts from diabetic 2-wk and 8-wk rats induced by streptozotocin (STZ). Pattern recognition analysis of either urine or kidney extracts indicated that the two diabetic groups were separated obviously from the control group, suggesting that the metabolic profiles of the diabetic groups were markedly different from the control. The diabetic 8-wk rats showed lower levels of creatine, dimethylamine, and higher levels of ascorbate, succinate, lactate, citrate, allantoin, 2-ketoglutarate, and 3-hydrobutyrate (3-HB) in the urine samples. Moreover, the diabetic 8-wk rats displayed lower levels of succinate, creatine, myo-inositol, alanine, lactate, and ATP, and higher levels of 3-HB and glucose in the kidney extracts. The observed metabolic changes imply the enhanced pathways of either lipid or ketone body synthesis and decreased pathways of either tricarboxylic acid cycle or glycolysis in DN rats compared with the control. Our results suggest that the energy metabolic changes are associated with the pathogenic process of DN.