In situ TEM observation of growth behavior of Kr bubbles in zirconium alloy during post-implantation annealing
- 能源院－会议论文 
The growth behavior of the Kr bubbles in Kr+ irradiated Zr-1.1Nb-1.51Fe-0.26Cu-0.72Ni alloy was studied by in situ transmission electron microscopy. Results show that the distributions of Kr bubbles are not uniform in the zirconium alloy matrix after annealing at 700 K, 875 K, 1025 K, 1125 K and 1225 K, respectively. The Kr bubbles started to grow slowly when the sample was annealed at a temperature below 1025 K. The average sizes of the gas bubbles were observed to grow only about 0.4 nm in diameter at 700 K for 170 min and 0.9 nm at 875 K for 240 min, respectively. However, gas bubbles grew very quickly at 1225 K. The largest size of the gas bubbles is over 200 nm after 180 min annealing. The relationship between the bubble size and the annealing time was obtained at the designed annealing temperature. An empirical formula for calculating the bubble size was suggested by fitting equations derived from the experiment data. Finally, the growth mechanism of the bubbles in the zirconium alloy was discussed. Crown Copyright (C) 2013 Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.