Management effectiveness evaluation of Bunaken National Park of Indonesia using an updated framework
Berliarang, Joanna Josephine
- 海洋环境－会议论文 
Evaluation of management effectiveness is a very crucial aspect behind the management of every successful Marine Protected Area (MPA). It gives broader understanding of the management progress, how effective the management has been and what can be done to improve management performance. The paper evaluates the management effectiveness of Bunaken National Park (BNP) management performance from 2004 to 2009. Moreover, seeing that the past evaluation framework in BNP is inadequate to assess broader issues BNP is currently facing, this paper proposes a different evaluation framework that could better fit BNP's current condition and provide deeper assessment to help understand BNP's overall management effectiveness in greater detail. The evaluation was conducted in the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) framework which assesses six good management elements (context, planning, input, processes, outputs, and outcomes). The results highlighted a range of management problems in BNP, including poor management planning, lack of management intervention and inadequate monitoring. The paper provides insights on how essential management elements that are often neglected in management practices could affect overall management performance. ? (2013) Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland.