How Much Can a Rock Get?
［文摘］日本以冲之鸟礁为基点主张200海里的专属经济区,而且向外延伸大陆架最远至550海里。该行为已引起了国际社会的广泛关注和争议。本文旨在探讨冲之鸟礁的自然地理条件、基于该条件所能够主张的海域及日本极端主张所引发的问题。 本文首先介绍冲之鸟礁的基本情况和日本基于该岩礁所提出的主张,指出该主张与《联合国海洋法公约》(以下简称《公约》)的岛屿制度相悖离的事实。进而概括了日本为满足其多重目的,试图将冲之鸟礁改造成为国际法意义上的岛屿(简称“岛屿化”)的实践,并对日本支撑其国家主张所提出的所谓观点与理由进行了评述。最后,本文提出了与日本“岛屿化”行为相关的几个重要问题。例如,依照国际法,岩礁是否与岛屿有所不同?《公约》应当如何被实施及国际社会的意见是否应被尊重?“委员会”如何通过其所做出的决定履行职能?历经数年大规模、处心积虑的改造后,冲之鸟礁的法律地位是否依然是岩礁,还是应当被视为人工设施? 本文指出:冲之鸟礁不具备法律意义上的岛屿条件,因此无权主张专属经济区和大陆架。此外,日本在冲之鸟礁周围所进行的建构已经改变了冲之鸟礁的自然地理条件;这些混凝土结构和设施已事实上将冲之鸟礁改造为人工岛屿或人工设施,只应享有500米的安全区。 同时,本文阐明了日本基于冲之鸟礁提出的主张所产生的重大和深远影响。目前,各国不断提交外大陆架划界申请,已使国际法以及国际海底制度面临严峻的挑战,国际社会当共同努力以应对挑战。［Abstract］The paper examines the Okinotorishima Rocks and their entitlement in generating extended jurisdictional zones,together with issues aggravated by Japan’s excessive national claims.Based on the Okinotorishima Rocks, Japan claims a 200 nautical mile Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) and an extended continental shelf(ECS).The practice has caused disagreement and concerns from the international community. The paper starts with a brief introduction on the Okinotorishima Rocks and the maritime zone claims composed byJ apan based on the tiny rocks against the island regime envisaged in the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS).This is followed by a general review of the Japanese attempts to promote the Okinotorishima Rocks into legal islands (simplified as“islandisation”) so as to support its national claims of multiple purposes.The paper continues with an illustration of the Japanese views and arguments in maintaining its claim and islandisation practice over the Okinotorishi- ma Rocks.The paper raises some of the key questions associated with the Jap- anese islandisation attempts.These include whether or not rocks are distinguishable from islands based on the existing international law.How should the UNCLOS be implemented and how should the concerns of the international community be respected?How will the Commission on the Limits of the Continental Shelf accomplish its role with an applicable decision?After years of heavy,deliberate expansion,are the Okinotorishima Rocks still natural rocks or man-made artificial structures? The paper concludes that the Okinotorishima Rocks do not qualify as legal islands,and are not entitled to extended jurisdictional zones.Moreover,what Japan has constructed around the rocks has changed their natural status and the expanded concrete structures have turned the rocks into artificial islands or artificial structures which deserve only a 500-meter safety zone. Meanwhile,the paper points out the profound implications and far-reaching impact reflected from the Japanese claims based on the Okinotorishima Rocks.The rush by states to make ECS submissions has created a real crisis for international law and the deep seabed regime.The international community as a whole should work together to deal with this crisis.