Normal components, Kekule patterns, and Clar patterns in plane bipartite graphs
- 数学科学－已发表论文 
As a general case of molecular graphs of polycyclic alternant hydrocarbons, we consider a plane bipartite graph G with a Kekule pattern (perfect matching). An edge of G is called nonfixed if it belongs to some, but not all, perfect matchings of G. Several criteria in terms of resonant cells for determining whether G is elementary (i.e., without fixed edges) are reviewed. By applying perfect matching theory developed in plane bipartite graphs, in a unified and simpler way we study the decomposition of plane bipartite graphs with fixed edges into normal components, which is shown useful for resonance theory, in particular, cell and sextet polynomials. Further correspondence between the Kekule patterns and Clar (resonant) patterns are revealed.