Regulation of TNF expression by multiple mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways
Downey, J. S.
Di Padova, F.
Han, J. H.
- 生命科学－已发表论文 
Stimulating macrophages with bacterial endotoxin (LPS) activates numerous intracellular signaling pathways that lead to the production of TNF, In this study, we show that four mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase pathways are activated in LPS-stimulated macrophages: the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), c-Jun N-terminal kinase/stress-activated protein kinase, p38, and Big MAP kinase (BMK)/ERK5 pathways. Although specific activation of a single MAP kinase pathway produces only a modest effect on TNF promoter activation, activation of each MAP kinase pathway is important for full induction of the TNF gene. Interestingly, a dramatic induction of TNF promoter-driven gene expression was observed when all of the four MAP kinase pathways were activated simultaneously, suggesting a cooperative effect among these kinases, Unexpectedly, cis elements known to be targeted by MAP kinases do not play a major role in multiple MAP kinase-induced TNF gene expression. Rather, a 40-bp sequence harboring the TATA box, is responsible for the gene up-regulation induced by MAP kinases, The proximity of the MAP kinase-responsive element to the transcriptional initiation site suggested that MAP kinases regulate the transcriptional initiation complex. Utiliizing alpha-amanitin-resistant RNA polymerase II mutants with or without a C-terminal domain (CTD) deletion, we found that deleting the CTD to 31 tandem repeats (Delta 31) led to >90% reduction in MAP kinase-mediated TNF production. Thus, our. data demonstrate coordination of multiple MAP kinase pathways in TNF production and suggest that the CTD of RNA polymerase II is required to execute MAP kinase signaling in TNF expression.