Structural modification of ginsenoside Rh-2 by fatty acid esterification and its detoxification property in antitumor
- 生命科学－已发表论文 
Ginsenoside Rh-2, one of the most important ginsenosides with anticancer properties in red ginseng, has been developed as principal antitumor ingredient for clinical use. However, the cytotoxicity test in human hepatocyte cell line QSG-7701 (IC50 37.3 mu M) indicated that Rh-2 might show strong cytotoxic side-effect on the normal liver cells. For blunting the toxicity, Rh-2 was structurally modified by reacting with octanoyl chloride to give a dioctanoyl ester of Rh-2 (D-Rh-2) in the present study. MIT assay in QSG-7701 cell line in vitro showed that the cytotoxicity of D-Rh-2 on human hepatocyte cells (IC50 80.5 mu M) was significantly lower than that of Rh-2. While antitumor xenograft assay in mice bearing H22 liver cancer cells in vivo showed that the antitumor activity of D-Rh-2 retained to be strong as that of Rh-2. According to previous pharmacokinetic studies, the fatty acid esterification of Rh-2 might be of detoxification reaction to cells. Additionally, D-Rh-2 showed significant enhancement on increasing thymus index at the dose of 10 mg/kg compared with vehicle treated control group. Thus, D-Rh-2 might indirectly affect tumor growth by stimulating lymphocytes to become cytotoxic to tumor cells. Finally, our findings suggested that D-Rh-2, the fatty acid ester of Rh-2, might attenuate the side-effect by detoxification to human normal cell and could be a more potential candidate for developing as an antitumor drug. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.