Ecological damage appraisal of sea reclamation and its application to the establishment of usage charge standard for filled seas: Case study of Xiamen, China
- 海洋环境－已发表论文 
Half of the world's population, production and consumption activities are concentrated in the coastal zone which accounts for only 10% of all land area. High density population areas have a deficit of space. Coastal human settlements can exploit their position by reclaiming tidal and shallow sea areas through sea reclamation. Sea reclamation by the coast usually means that the sea is filled with land to create more useful land area. Sea reclamation, however, results in heavy losses to ecosystems of the immediate coastal environment. The coastal ecosystems functions such as storing and cycling nutrients, filtering pollutants from inland freshwater systems, protecting shorelines from erosion and storms, regulating global hydrology and climate, accepting and assimilating waste and providing food and materials can be destroyed by the sea reclamation. Imposing usage charge on sea reclamation is an effective economic incentive for regulating the sea reclamation. The value of filled seas as production factors and ecological damage of sea reclamation must be integrated into the decision-making to ensure the sustainable use of marine resources. In our paper, we establish ecological-economic models to estimate the value of marine space as production factors and to assess the ecological damage of sea reclamation to provide sound basis for the policy making about regulating the sea reclamation. We applied the developed model in Xiamen and found that the values of filled seas for industrial zone and for commercial use were 48.82 yuan/m(2) and 1251.4-1572.04 yuan/m(2); the value of ecological damage of sea reclamation was 279 yuan/m(2). The present usage charge standard is so low that did not include the full costs of sea reclamation and should be modified to 327.82 yuan/m(2) for industrial use and 50%-55% of the adjacent land prices for commercial use.