The biosynthesis of palladium nanoparticles by antioxidants in Gardenia jasminoides Ellis: long lifetime nanocatalysts for p-nitrotoluene hydrogenation
- 化学化工－已发表论文 
Gardenia jasminoides Ellis' water crude extract was used for the bioreduction of palladium chloride in this paper. The UV-vis spectrum, x-ray diffraction spectrum measurement, the Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and TEM technique confirmed the formation of palladium nanoparticles and identified antioxidants including geniposide, chlorogenic acid, crocins and crocetin were reducing and stabilizing agents for synthesizing palladium nanoparticles in water crude extract. The particle size and dispersity were temperature-dependent. The particle sizes ranged from 3 to 5 nm and revealed the best dispersity at 70 degrees C. Catalytic performance of the biosynthetic Pd nanoparticles with good dispersity was investigated by hydrogenation of p-nitrotoluene. The catalysts showed a conversion of 100% under conditions of 5 MPa, 150 degrees C for 2 h. The selectivity of p-methyl-cyclohexylamine achieved 26.3%. The catalyst was recycled five times with no agglomeration and maintained activity, which was attributed to the appropriate protection of the antioxidants. On the basis of the study, it appears to be a new promising biosynthetic nanocatalyst for the development of an industrial process.