Study on the Standard of Fraud under the Fraud Rule of Letter of Credit
- 法学院－学位论文 
信用证是现代国际贸易中最重要的支付工具和融资工具。信用证之所以有今日之地位，关键在于其独立抽象性原则，即银行在信用证下的付款义务是独立于任何基础合同的，且银行处理的仅仅是单据而非货物、服务等，从而保证了出卖方可以在提交合适单据后快捷地取得货款。然而事物的发展往往具有两面性，独立抽象性原则作为信用证的基石和灵魂，在促进信用证极大发展和获得成功的同时,却又引发了侵蚀整个信用证制度的行为──信用证欺诈。面对国际贸易领域信用证欺诈暗流的日益涌动，欺诈例外规则作为独立性抽象性原则的对立和补充也就应运而生。该规则力求在保护信用证的正常流转和遏制欺诈之间寻找一种平衡，而从现有理论和司法实践来看，取得制衡的关键是对信用证欺诈进行科学认定。但至今各国对此都未形成统一标准，故有必要加以进一步研究。<br>本文以信用证欺诈例外规则之欺诈认定为题，分四章对该问题进行探讨：<br>第一章：从信用证独立抽象性原则入手，阐述欺诈例外规则的必要性；同时对具有里程碑意义的美国著名判例进行分析，为下文做一铺垫。<br>第二章：重点介绍英美法国家关于信用证欺诈的认定规则与司法实践，对各国做法之利弊加以分析和评论。<br>第三章：在对信用证欺诈例外规则的传统法理基础进行反思的基础上，就欺诈的认定标准得出相关结论。<br>第四章：在上述内容的基础上，就我国信用证欺诈认定方面的立法和司法实践进行介绍，并提出相关立法建议。The letter of credit is the most important means of payment and financing tool in modern international trade. For the position that the letter of credit has today, the key lies in the doctrine of autonomy, under this doctrine, the obligation of an issuing bank of a letter of credit is in dependent from the underlying sale of goods contract, and the bank only deals with the documents relative to the goods transaction. So the doctrine of autonomy ensure the seller get payment quickly if he presenting documents complied with the terms and conditions of the letter of credit. But just as any coin has two sides, the doctrine of autonomy as the stone of the letter of credit, on one hand, makes the letter of credit operate well, on the other hand, causes the behavior of fraud corroding the whole system of the letter of credit. Facing the serious problem, the fraud rule arise as opposite and supplement to the doctrine of autonomy. The goal of the fraud rule is to achieve balance between the operation of the letter of credit and control the behavior of fraud. Considering present theory and practice, the key to the goal above is having scientific standard of fraud required under the fraud rule. But it has no united opinion on this issue, it is necessary to study further. <br>This paper focuses on the issue of how to justify the fraud under the fraud rule. There are four chapters in the main text: <br>Chapter 1: first analyzes the necessity of the fraud rule, which based on the introduction of the doctrine of autonomy, then makes comments on an famous case that is the milestone of the fraud rule . <br>Chapter 2: focuses on the standing and practice on the standard of fraud under the fraud rule of those common law countries and makes comments . <br>Chapter 3 : With introspecting the traditional legal basis of the fraud rule, achieves the conclusion of the standard of fraud under the fraud rule. <br>Chapter 4: introduces the statute law and relative practice of China and puts forward some suggestions.