Lysis of a red-tide causing alga, Alexandrium tamarense, caused by bacteria from its phycosphere
- 海洋环境－已发表论文 
There are bacteria coexisting in xenic cultures of Alexandrium tamarense, a red-tide causing alga. However little is known concerning the interactions between the alga and the bacteria in its phycosphere. The objective of the current study was to determine the effect of the bacteria in its phycosphere on the growth of the alga. We added one percent (v/v) Zobell 2216E medium to A. tamarense culture to alter bacterial growth and the results showed that algal cells were all lysed within 14 h. After adding the medium, both the abundance and the extracellular enzyme activity of the bacteria increased by 50-100 times from the 4th to the 10th hour which resulted in lysis of the algae. The 16S rRNA gene fragments of the bacteria were amplified from the DNA extracted from A. tamarense cultures and analyzed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and sequencing. The structure of the bacterial community in phycosphere changed significantly during algal lysis. Two bacterial genera, Alteromonas sp. and Thalassobius aestuarii sp. are key factors that caused the lysis, and the beta-glucosidase and chitinase produced by the bacteria in the phycosphere could directly cause the lysis. These experiments provide evidence that bacteria in its phycosphere play a key role in the culture of A. tamarense, and may provide insights into the future biocontrol of red-tides. (C) 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.