Power Struggle and the Racial Factors of the American Anti-abortion Movement in the 19th Century
- 2021年 
【中文摘要】19世纪下半叶，美国中产阶级妇女为了摆脱无节制生、养子女对身心的折磨及束缚，率先以避孕及堕胎的方式来控制生育，其中堕胎逐渐成为妇女控制生育的重要方式。然而，职业医师认为堕胎导致美国白人妇女生育率的下降,于是发起反堕胎运动。他们一方面利用科学和道德话语面向公众，尤其是女性推广其反堕胎理念;另一方面游说地方各州的立法机构，以立法的形 式“监管”和“惩治”妇女的堕胎行为，促使美国由胎动期前堕胎合法的国家转为堕胎违法的国家。然而，反堕胎运动的背后蕴藏着职业医师追求权威地位和经济利益的行业诉求，亦体现了以美国中产阶级职业医师为代表的盎格鲁-撒克逊族裔本土白人对社会转型时期人口-种族结构失衡、社会道德滑坡等问题的应对。 【Abstract】In the second half of the 19th century，the US middle-class women made use of contraception and abortion methods to control birth，breaking free of the physical and mental torture and shackles of uncontrolled birth and childrearing. Abortion has gradually become an important method of birth control for women. Facing the sharply declining fertility rates of white women in the US，professional physicians launched an anti-abortion campaign. On the one hand，they used scientific and ethical discourse to promote their anti-abortion concepts to the public，especially women，while on the other hand，they lobbied the legislatures of each state. At the end of the 19th century，almost all US states introduced abortion legislation. During the 19th century，the US transformed from a country where abortion was legal to a country where abortion was illegal. However，professional physicians launched the anti-abortion movement for various reasons. They pursued authority status as well as economic benefits，and it also reflected that Anglo-Saxon native whites，represented by middle-class American professional physicians，were anxious for the change of the demographic - racial structure in the era of social transformation. Besides that，the anti-abortion movement was also a response to moral decline in the second half of the 19th century.