A longitudinal analysis of the association between the living arrangements and psychological well-being of older Chinese adults: the role of income sources.
Hong Y Alicia
- 公共卫生－已发表论文 
BACKGROUND(#br)Understanding how living arrangements may affect psychological well-being (PWB) is critical in China, a society with the largest older population in the world. However, few studies have examined the moderating effect of income sources on the relationship between living arrangements and PWB. Our aim was to examine whether living arrangements are associated with PWB and whether income sources moderate this association.(#br)METHODS(#br)The data were drawn from the third (2002) to sixth (2011/2012) waves of the Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey (CLHLS). Six questions reflecting older adults’ well-being were used to measure PWB. Living arrangements were classified as follows: living alone, living with family and living in an institution. Income sources were categorized into financially independent, supported by children, and governmental support. We performed random-effects ordinal probit models to examine the association of living arrangements with PWB and the moderating effect of income sources on this relationship.(#br)RESULTS(#br)We included a total sample of 30,899 observations for 16,020 respondents aged 65 and over during 9-year follow-up. Older adults living with family (β = .29, p < .001) and those living in an institution (β = .34, p < .001) had stronger PWB than those living alone; moreover, support from children (β= -.24, p < .001) or from the government (β= -.08, p < .05) has a negative effect on PWB compared to the effect of financial self-support. Living in an institution with support from children (β= -.22, p < .05) led to lower PWB than living alone with financial self-support. The opposite result was observed for older adults living with their family and supported by the government (β = .16, p < .05).(#br)CONCLUSIONS(#br)Our analysis provides a significant contribution to the existing literature on the relationship between living arrangements and PWB in China. We recognize that living with family or in an institution leads to better PWB than does living alone. In addition, financial support from the government can moderate this association.