Propagation Characteristics of Ultrasonic Weld-guided Waves in Friction Stir Welding Joint of Same Material
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Abstract(#br)Friction stir welding (FSW) is an important technology for manufacturing large-scale aluminum alloy propellant tank. Due to stress corrosion and cyclic loads, the key FSW joints require online monitoring to ensure the structural integrity and service safety of long-term storage propellant tanks. FSW joints in the propellant tank are regarded as a type of circumferential or longitudinal long and narrow region. In order to detect the flaws with high efficiency and fewer sensors, the propagation characteristics of ultrasonic guided waves in the FSW joint of same material is investigated in this paper. The weld of a FSW joint is characterized by concave cross-sectional shape and different microstructure-mechanical parameters. The micro-structure, micro-hardness, and Young’s modulus of a real FSW joint are analyzed, and a two-dimensional semi-analytical finite-element (SAFE) method is employed to study the effects of different parameters on the modal characteristics of weld-guided waves in the FSW joint. In the studied fundamental modes (symmetric (S0), anti-symmetric (A0), and shear-horizontal (SH0)), an almost non-leaky A0-like weld-guided wave at a certain frequency range from 100 kHz to 210 kHz is discovered in the welded zone of a specific FSW model and shows a potential for long-distance detection. Parametric simulation results show that A0-like, SH0-like and S0-like modes at 120 kHz always exist when the weld width is changed while the moduli of the welded zone and base metal zone are maintained the same. Additionally, the simulations demonstrate that some weld-guided waves only exist if the modulus value of the welded zone is lower than that of the base metal zone when the cross section is geometrically continuous (i.e. the shoulder plunge depth is zero). Comparing with weld-guided waves affected by weld width, the weld-guided waves affected by the modulus change shows less obvious energy leakage during propagation. The experiments are conducted to validate the existence of A0-like weld-guided mode with a primary energy trapping effect.