Reflections on the Participation of Returning Elites in Village Governance
- 2020年 
【中文摘要】新农村建设和乡村振兴战略实施过程中，不少返乡精英携带着资金、人力、技术、文化或市场优势，重新进入村庄场域参与村庄的治理。返乡精英参与乡村治理在改变甚至重建乡村经济和社会治理结构的同时,也在一定程度上导致乡村治理出现“寡头化”和“精英俘获”现象。个体理性、市场理性、乡村弱社会、政府支农项目资源输入和各级政府的政策激励成为形塑返乡精英参与乡村治理的驱动力，也因此带来乡村治理的双重效应:一方面，因返乡精英突出的个人才能使其成为“乡贤”对提升乡村发展和治理水平有多方面的促进作用;另一方面，返乡精英“寡头化” 也可能导致乡村资源分配不合理，加剧“精英俘获”现象。对于返乡精英参与乡村治理中究竟发挥什么样的作用，还应结合当前城乡一体化、乡村振兴发展新形势和国家宏观政策制度，方能作出更加客观全面的评价。 【Abstract】Amid new rural development and the implementation of the strategy for rural revitalization，many returning elites have entered the village realm again with their advantages in capital，manpower，technology，culture or market information ，participating in the governance of the village community. The participation of returning elites in village governance not only changes or even reconstructs the economic and social governance structure of rural areas，but also leads to the phenomenon of “oligopoly” and “elite capture” of rural governance to a certain extent. The individual rationality，the market rationality，the weak rural society， the resources input of government for agricultural projects and the policy incentive of governments at all levels become the internal and external driving forces for returning elites to participate in village governance. This creates the dual effect of returning elites participating in village governance. On the one hand，because of the outstanding individual ability of the returning elites，they become “village sages”，which can promote the development and governance of rural areas in many aspects. On the other hand，the “oligopoly” of the returning elites may also lead to irrational distribution of rural resources and exacerbate “elite capture”. To achieve a more objective and comprehensive evaluation of the role of returning elites in rural governance，it is necessary to take into account the new situation of urban- rural integration，rural revitalization and the national macro policy system.